Annotated Bibliography

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Babies and toddlers should learn from play, not screens. Science Daily.

This article talks about the AAP’s policy statement from 1999, which was the first guide to media use on children under age two. Dr. Brown, who is on the AAP council on communications and media, offered some of his thoughts on how the new policy is answering some questions about digital media and young children under the age of two that could not be answered before due to lack of research and information.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Family Media Plan. (n.d.).

Explained what a Family Media Plan was, and how families should utilize it when deciding to come up with their own plan.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (2001). American Academy of Pediatrics: children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 107: 423-426.

This is the 2001 statement from the Committee on Public Education. It describes the positive and negative health effects of television on children. Aggressive behavior, substance abuse, obesity and decreased school performance are all considered. More focused on television than overall digital media use.

Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., Cross, C., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2593  

This technical report talks about the new policy statements from the AAP. As well as identifying how media use is drastically changing from back in the day. Touches on what media is most popular and “gamification.” Runs through info about each of the age groups and how they use their media.

Choudhury, S., McKinney, K. A. (2013). Digital media, the developing brain and the interpretive plasticity of neuroplasticity. Transcultural Psychiatry. 50(2). 192-215.

This article is heavy with more scientific information that talks about young people becoming desensitized, depressed and attention deficient because of cyber technology. It brings the historical pattern of technology related anxiety and how our society doesn’t always know how to deal with new technologies or how to control it.

Domahidi, E., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2012). Real friends and virtual life? Computer games as foci of activity for social community building. Conference Papers — International Communication Association, 1-35.

This source talks about the idea of real world friends playing in a virtual world. It challenges a lot of the research that I gathered and gives life on a different perspective on digital media. The conference papers fail to acknowledge a lot of the consequences of too much digital media but it was still a useful source to shine light on the positives of digital media in our society.

Jung, Brian. (2011).The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals. Chron.

This website provided a few examples of how people can be negatively affected by social media.  It provided findings from a study at Cornell that showed how the causal connections we form online prevent us from putting energy into our real life connections.

Kahn, A. S., & Williams, D. (2016). We’re All in This (Game) Together. Communication Research, 43(4), 487-517. doi:10.1177/0093650215617504

This source explores the social skills gained while playing online games. The communication skills that can and cannot transfer over to real life applications of communication and team problem solving.

Molyneux, L., Vasudevan, K., & Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2015). Gaming Social Capital: Exploring Civic Value in Multiplayer Video Games. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(4), 381-399. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12123

This source covers specifically online multiplayer games and how they affect people psychologically. The article mentions the idea of Substitution Theory and explains the logic behind. Concerns of such theory are mentioned and the varying degrees of the theory.

Moreno, M., Chassiakos, Y., Cross, C., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Media use in school-aged children and adolescents. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2592

This policy statement and recommendation list is again from the American Academy of Pediatrics but it addresses the 5-18 year-old age group. It brings up some of the positives of digital media, like being exposed to new ideas, but also touches on the negatives on physical and mental health and well-being. Mentions the challenges parents have on monitoring their teenagers and children’s media use throughout the day. At the end it again lists off recommendations to the pediatricians, families, governmental organizations as well as the industry.

Nadworny, E., & Kamenetz, A. (Eds.). (2016). Real Parents, Real Talk about Kids and Screens.

Showed the results of a study done on parents who have kids. Revealed how long the average parent with kids spends in front of a screen. Also touched upon the concerns some parents have regarding their children and technology.

Nakamura, Lisa. [TedxTalks].  (2011, Oct. 11). TEDxUIllinois – Dr.Lisa Nakamura – 5 Types of Online Racism and Why You Should Care.

This was the Ted Talk that talked about the “GayBoy” experience.  This experiment is what connected the contagion theory to online communities.  In this video, it’s easy to see how fast toxicity can spread through an online community.

Radesky, J., Christakis, D., American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2591

This is the policy statement and recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics that addresses infants and toddlers as well as preschool media and learning. Along with this, the statement talks about the health and developmental concerns that they have found through their research. By the end it lists off specific recommendations for pediatricians of these infants and toddlers, families of the children, and the industry providing the technologies.

Rapp, A., Beitelspacher, L.S., Grewal, D. (January 27th, 2013).  Understanding Social Media       Effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions. Journal of the academy of              Marketing science, 41, 547-566.

This website introduced me to the contagion theory.  This theory is the idea that through animosity, people are more likely to partake in riotous or negative behavior.  This applies to online mediums and how it’s easy for things like racism and homophobia to spread.

Redmond, Dustin L., “The effect of video games on family communication and interaction” (2010). Graduate Theses and Dissertations. p. 11614.

The bonds between family members can be strengthened by playing video games with each other. Experiencing a new environment in a video game can bring families together.

The effects of passion for MMORPGs on interpersonal relationships. (2012). Conference Papers — International Communication Association, 1-24.

This sources talks about the positives of real world friends and also acknowledging the consequences of too much exposure. It talks about the Substitution Theory without actually calling it that. Suggesting that the theory is a general consensus throughout digital media studies and research.

Vandewater, E. A., Rideout, V. J., Wartella, E. A. (2007). Digital childhood: electronic media and technology se among infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Pediatrics. 119(5). doi:  10.1542/peds.2006-1804

This was a study done in 2007 to see and describe media access/use among US children aged 0-6. The goal was to assess how many young children fall within the American Academy of Pediatrics media-use guidelines at the time. Info with more numeric back to it are provided with this article.

Wera, Julien.  (2008, April 1).  Online Community Management: Communication through               Gamers.Gamasutra.
This article gave me insight into what it takes to manage a community.  It is written from the perspective of someone who has experience in managing communities.  It discusses how to promote positivity and the minutia required to speak to community members.  It talks about the fragile relationship between players and developers that the manager has to nurture and grow.


Global Citizen Project

Who/ What/ Why?

Kendra Gill, Emmitt Lewis, Eric Sinks, and Ethan Fogle. This project called for four pretend Common Sense Media researchers to look into the effects of digital media use and eventually come to make a policy recommendation for users and future users to come.

Overview of problem

Although digital media use has improved may aspects of citizen’s lives, too much of one thing is never good and digital media should be included in that statement. Over using digital media technology impacts the social relationships we have with our family and friends once we start prioritizing screen-time over face-to-face interaction. As children are growing up in this electronic age, where this media is almost everywhere they look, and this is impacting their development and overall life outcomes.


Policy recommendation

More knowledge should be put into people’s ear and flashed before their eyes about the harm that too much can do, but also how to make this advanced technology a tool for everyday life and not just an outlet when you’re bored or upset. For the ones that already have digital media flooding their lives, it is up to you to show the next generation how to effectively and beneficially use the digital media that we have been given. If taught to use technology and digital media as a tool for learning and furthering one’s goals, they will continue to grow and use these electronics for the better and not just for entertainment value.  


A PSA campaign about the effects, both positive and negative, of digital media use should be put into the radio wave, on television screens, and everywhere online. Our hope is that a PSA campaign will get the information out there to people that digital media should be used as a tool rather than mindless consumption. And that too much digital media consumption has serious effects on friends, families, children, and communities. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) put out a Media Use Plan along with the, “Media and Young Minds” policy statement and the, “Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents” secondary policy statement that address the use of digital media and calls for action from pediatricians, families and government organizations. Reinforcing this information from the policy statements above and giving it to the public through a PSA will hit home that this is a real issue in today’s society that can be improved.


Policy Analysis

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) put out one of the first aids in helping families get on the right track with their media use. was launched in October of 2016 and is a tool for parents to monitor what their children are doing throughout the day and how much time is spent in front of a screen. This is not only a tool for the children, but also the parents because after all these children are learning from how their parents are using these digital technologies.


Along with this Media Use Plan came the, “Media and Young Minds,” policy statement. Led by Jenny Radesky, MD, who has made a life commitment to researching learning and advocacy for children, the council on communication and media really focuses on the parent being the “media mentor.” Rather than just giving children a device, sit with them and teach them how to use it in a constructive way that will benefit them and not just simply entertain all the time. Radesky appeared on the AAP Media Panel Discussion on Children and Media in 2016 and said that, “Literature continues to show that too much media in early childhood is associated with behavioral, developmental, sleep and obesity outcomes that can be prevented.” Although there are many different factors that come into play when talking about children’s developmental outcomes there should always be time in their day to let their own creativity and brain activity take the lead. Introducing media at a young age, even as young as 18 months, will allow children to grow up with accurate demonstrations of digital media literacy and will provide them with the right knowledge to continue to use these medias in a positive way. This policy calls out pediatricians to start the conversation early with the parents of their families. It also calls on these families to avoid media use with children that are younger than 18 months, and to limit and monitor technology time throughout the day for ones that are over a year. Finally, it gives some responsibility to the industry to make sure that the products they are creating are age-appropriate and that they are formally and scientifically evaluated before being deemed educational.

When age starts increasing and adolescents start to make their own decisions about the consumption of digital media, recommendations change understandably. Media use is highly personalized and interwoven into the lives of these children today and so too should the guidelines for digital media use. Megan Moreno, MD, who also appeared on the AAP Media Panel Discussion on Children and Media was the lead author of the second policy statement issued by the AAP. “Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents,” focuses on children and teenagers from the age of 5-18. This policy statement is build off of the past ten years of evidence that show digital media negatively affecting sleep, obesity along with school and academic outcomes. These recommendations again call on the pediatricians to promote the understanding of the benefits and the risks of digital media use. They touch on the family’s role to continue to monitor screen time using the family Media Use Plan while engaging in co-viewing media with the child. Lastly, it calls on the researchers, governmental organizations and the industry to continue with their research while prioritizing longitudinal and robust study designs and interventions including the reduction of harmful media use and preventing/addressing harmful media experiences for these children and teenagers.



Digital media can be used as a tool with developing children, making new friendships and building communities. But there is a point where too much is not a good thing. Prioritizing screen time over face-to-face interaction causes more problems in the long run with mental and physical health. The use of technology will benefit more than hurt our world once the generations come to learn that it is a tool for learning and interacting, rather than for entertainment value and a boredom cure. Also bringing people’s attention to the fact that more research and information needs to be conducted about the effects of digital media. A PSA being put onto the radio waves, with the hopes for an appearance on television, that explains the need for people to understand these effects, would be the best way to reach the most people for the best price.       

Comments from the authors

Kendra Gill- “I learned from my research that although there are a lot of positive effects from digital media use in children, they don’t learn just from placing it into their hands and too much is when those positives begin to change into negatives. Overall, children are going to learn from the way their parents interact with any device or media platform more than they are going to learn from just messing around with it. Demonstrative learning and allowing time during the day for their brains to explore creatively on their own is also much better than any electronic device or digital media exposure.”    

Ethan Fogle-  In doing research for this topic I discovered that this topic was very relatable to me. Maybe not on an extreme level but relating as to why I went to video games. I personally am able to validate certain talks of addiction and Substitution theory in my own life. In doing research it has made me look at the way I play video games and perhaps change my habits. If nothing else I will be able to tell others that I game with of my research.

Emmitt Lewis- “From doing this project I learned that,like with all things in life, digital media in moderation is fine. When used too much, digital media can start changing family dynamics for the worse. The struggle between the parent and child can start to become too overwhelming and can potentially cause a rift in the family. When used in moderation technology can be used as another way for families to spend time together and interact with one another. These interactions can strengthen relationships within the family unit.”

Eric Sinks- After researching the nuances of virtual communities, I saw a larger part of the negative side of communities.  As someone who considers themselves part of one, it’s easy to tell others about how great it is and only mention the positives.  I think you need to ignore negativity a lot, but also look at the negativity critically, and see where it’s rooted in.  Sometimes the negativity is just random piling on or trolls being trolls, but in other cases in can reveal a much larger issue.

Redlining and how it shaped the suburbs of today

1934, the Federal government passed the National Housing Act, creating the Federal Housing Administration. In turn, housing discrimination against people of color, whom were already discriminated against, became “legal”.

Present day, the housing discrimination against people of color known as Redlining is now illegal but it’s actions are still felt in cities across the country, both large and small. The Metro-Detroit area was no exception.

redlining map.png
1939 Residential Security Map created by private mortgage firm Hearne Brothers

So what does redlining mean? It was the manipulation of four ranking system for neighborhoods that the FHA created to “guide” people into investing in homes in certain neighborhoods.

The four classifications for neighborhoods are as follows: Best, still desirable, declining, and hazardous. Generally speaking, hazardous neighborhoods had people of color in them.

Hazardous areas were typically shown as red, hence the name “Redlining”.

Urban planning historian Kenneth Jackson theorized in his 1985 book The Suburbanization of the United States, that redlining was used by private and public interest to deny loans to black families.

It was later determined that the Home Owners Loan Corporation, a government run agency, did not use it for such activities but private companies used it to redline.

Ossian H. Sweet

So what happens when a person of color could afford to live in an area that isn’t redlined? On September 8, 1925, Ossian Sweet and his family moved into a home on 2905 Garland Street in Detroit, Michigan.

Ossian was a Florida native who graduated from Howard University with a medical degree. He worked at the Dunbar hospital as a physician and saved $3500 to purchase a home in Detroit.

Sweet House
Ossian Sweet and his home on 2905 Garland Street

Ossian and his family were black and Garland Street was located in a white neighborhood. The reaction of the white neighbors was violent.

On September 9th, Philip Adler, a Detroit News Reporter, described the situation outside the Sweet’s house.

“The mob consisted of 400 to 500 people, throwing stones at the house like hail,” said Adler.

When shots rang from the second-story window, killing one of the rioters, police came and arrested all the individuals in the house. After a series of trials nobody was charged with the murder as self-defense was claimed.

After the incident Sweet rented the house to a white family until 1930 when he moved back into the neighborhood. Sadly, his wife and daughter died four years earlier from tuberculosis.

Sweet sold the house in 1946.

Redlinings Affects on Neighborhoods Today

In 1968,  the Fair Housing Act was passed to stop private lenders from discriminate based on race. However, the affects of redlining still exist today.

Darcy Oudeh, a real estate agent for Century 21 in Garden City said ,”today we have a code of ethics and if a customer asks (about race or crime) we refer them to the police department or city hall.”

Although redlining no longer happens, it has shaped the cities and sprawling metropolises of today.

 Redlining Maps Reflecting Today’s Demographics

Below is a list of Detroit and surrounding cities with their 1939 Redlining “maps” followed by the current demographics of the cities.

Key: Best = Blue

Still Desirable= Green

Declining= Yellow


Inskter Waye Redlining

Inkster: 18.3% Caucasian, 76.5% African American, Average Income $15,277

Wayne: 76.3% Caucasian, 17.1 African American, Average Income $22, 643

Garden City: 92.5 Caucasian, 3.4% African American, Average Income $ 23,333

Birmingham Redlining.png

Birmingham: 92.3% Caucasian, 3.0% African American, Average Income $69,172

Ferndale: 84.6% Caucasian, 8.9% African American, Average Income $23,133

Huntington Woods: 94.34% Caucasian, 2.1% African American, Average Income $56,184

Hazel Park: 83.77% Caucasian, 10.5% African American, Average Income $19,390

Interactive Map of Redlining Statistics and Today’s Demographics

Another Perspective on Redlining 

Exercise 7

Original Draft, 

Dear Grandma O,

Most days I think about you, I wish I could have become closer with you. I was sort of jealous of how close you and Caryn were. But somehow you still didn’t choose favorites. It’s been over six months now and most days I think of you. My life would be much different without you. Even though you’re gone I still see you from time to time. As a cardinal or when when someone on Facebook mentions you. I wish I could have got to know you better, but I’m sure I’ll talk to you soon.

Final Draft

There isn’t a day that goes by that I am thinking of you. The things I wish I could have said to you or just wishing we were closer. I was always jealous of how much closer you were with Caryn. Somehow you still didn’t pick favorites.

It’s been over 8 months now and I think about you everyday.

My life would be much different without you. I’d be full of college debt, but you made a promise to all of your grandchildren that they can go to college on your behalf. I’ll be the second of 4 to graduate. The first one to graduate without you here.

Even though you have passed I still see you from time to time.

Whether you are in the form of a cardinal, your favorite animal, peaking through the trees or mentioned in a post on social media. There is always something reminding me of you.

I always enjoyed certain qualities of yours.

Keeping every birthday card and Christmas card, we didn’t know of this habit until you passed but it was completely you. You were never one to brag about accomplishments or misfortune. Always keeping things that would gain attention to yourself to yourself. This was your most noble quality in my eyes.

Being so reserved, we didn’t know of your condition until it was far to late. Keeping the severity of your cancer away from us until it was impossible to hide. It made the suffering and that was your intention.

I wish we could have talked more during those months but I’m sure I’ll talk to you soon.

The Process and Reflection

When writing about my grandmother at first I found it hard, I struggled. But the more I did it or thought about doing it the easier it became. My struggles came with not knowing how detailed to be and what details I would put in. Rather than create a story you’d see in a book I created a “letter” that people who have dealt with loss can relate to. My intention was to let others know that the sense of not doing enough or not knowing someone enough before there passing is common.

During the process I thought, well maybe I can write this about my dog that passed away. That will be easier and less personal. But I wanted to write something that may be a little hard to read or may bring a tear to the readers eye. Even if it does neither of these it will certainly make someone think when one of there loved ones in about to pass.